The Butterfly Effect

for the idea in all of us


Np – Hard Problems

Sparse Learning in Hippocampal Simulations

Sparse Learning Recall Networks

Recall-based functions are classically indicative of a mirror neuron system in which each approximation of the neural representation remains equally utilized, functioning as a load balancing mechanism. Commonly attributed to the preemptive execution of a planned task, the retention of memory in mirror neural systems tends to be modular in persistence and metaphysical in nature. Sparse neural systems interpret signals from cortical portions of the brain, allowing learned behaviors from multiple portions of the brain to execute simultaneously as observed in Fink’s studies on cerebral memory structures. It is theorized that the schematic representation of memory in these portions of the brain exists in memory fields only after a number of transformations have occurred in response to the incoming stimulus. Within these transformations lies the inherent differentiating factor in functional learning behavior: specifically, those which cause the flawed memory functions in the patients of such mental illnesses.

Semantic Learning Transformation

Now, similar to my fluid intelligence paper, we will need to semantically represent all types of ideas in a way that most directly allows for future transformations and biases to be included. For this, we will use a mutated version of the semantic lexical transformations.

The transformation of raw stimulus, in this case a verbal and unstructured story-like input, to a recall-able and normalized memory field will be simulated by a spatial transformer network. These mutations in raw input are the inherent reason for differentiated recall mechanisms between all humans. An altered version of the spatial transformer network, as developed in \cite{JaderbergSpatialNetworks} in Google’s Deepmind initiative, will be used to explicitly allow the spatial manipulation of data within the neural stack. Recall gradients mapped from our specialized network find their activation complexes similar to that of the prefrontal cortex in the brain,

An altered version of the spatial transformer network, as developed in Google’s Deepmind initiative, will be used to explicitly allow the spatial manipulation of data within the neural stack. Recall gradients mapped from our specialized network find their activation complexes similar to that of the prefrontal cortex in the brain, tasked with directing and encoding raw stimulus.

The Spatial Transformer Network (Unsupervised)

Originally designed for pixel transformations inside a neural network, the sampling grid or the input feature map will be parameterized to fit the translational needs of comprehension. The formulation of such a network will incorporate an elastic set of spatial transformers, each with a localisation network and a grid generator. Together, these will function as the receptive fields interfacing with the hypercolumns.

Now these transformer networks allowed us to parameterize any type of raw stimulus to be parsed and propagated through a more abstracted and generalized network capable of modulating fluid outputs.

The localisation network will take a mutated input feature map of U\in { \textbf{R}}^{ { H }_{ i }\times { W }_{ i }\times { C }_{ i } }, with width W, height H, channels C and outputs {\theta }_{i }. $i$ represents a differentiated gradient-dimensional resultant prioritized for storage in the stack. This net feature map allows the convolution of learned transformations to a neural stack in a compartmentalized system. A key characteristic of this modular transformation, as noted in Jaderberg’s spatial networks, is that the parameters of the transformations in the input feature map, as the size of \theta, can vary depending on the transformation type. This allows the sparse network to easily retain the elasticity needed to react to any type of stimulus, giving opportunity for compartmentalized learning space. The net dimensionality of the transformation { \tau }_{ \theta } on the feature map can be represented: \theta ={ f }_{ loc }\left( x \right) . In any case, the { f }_{ loc }\left( \right) can take any form, especially that of a learning network. For example, for a simple laplace transform, $\theta$ will assume a 6-dimensional position, and { f }_{ loc }\left( \right) will take the form of a convolutional network or a fully connected network (\cite{AndrewsIntegratingRepresentations}). The form of { f }_{ loc }\left( \right) is unbounded and nonrestrictive in domain, allowing all forms of memory persistence to coexist in the spatial stack.





Genetic Algorithm: Selection

In every generation, a selection agent comes to play which sifts out the fit chromosomes from the unfit chromosomes. The selection agent “kills off” a user specified percentage of organisms in the population.However, it is under the discretion of the selection agent in determining which chromosomes to kill. As mentioned earlier, fitness is defined by having the lowest weight in the circumstances put forth by the TSP. However selection may not necessarily be only off of that. This can be seen when comparing the two most prevalent types of selection operators:
Continue reading “Genetic Algorithm: Selection”

Genetic Algorithm: Mutation

During the progression of a genetic algorithm, the population can hit a local optima (or extrema). Nature copes for this local optima by adding random genetic diversity to the population set “every-so-often” with the help of mutation. Our genetic algorithm accomplishes this via the mutation operator. Although there are a plethora of mutation types our GA focused on a select two:

1. Reverse Sequence Mutation – In the reverse sequence mutation operator, we take a random point in the sequence or organism. We split the path (P1) at the selected point. The second half of the split path (P1H2) is then inverted and appended to the end of the first half (P1H1) with the necessary corrections made to make sure the last node is the same as the start node to get a final mutated path (M1).

P1: {A, C, J | D, G, H, E, B, F, I, A}  ⇒ M1: {A, C, J, I, F, B, E, H, G, D, A}

2. Center Inverse Mutation – The chromosome (path or organism) is divided into two sections at the middle of the chromosome. Each of these sections are then inverted and added to a new path. The order of each of these halves remains constant, meaning the first inverted half remains the first half in the mutated path. The necessary corrections are made to amend the mutated path into a viable path so solve the TSP.

P1: {A, C, J, D, G, H, E | B, F, I, A}  ⇒ M1: {A, E, H, G, D, J, C, I, F, B, A}

Genetic Algorithms: Crossover

The method of crossover remains fairly constant regardless of the problem and scope. Crossover is achieved by first selecting a crossover point within a pair of defined and unique organisms P1 and P2 (which are the equivalent of parents for the crossed over parent). The chromosomes are then split at the selected crossover point. The second half of P2 (P2H2)  is then appended to the first half of P`1  (P1H1) to make one child chromosome (C1). The second child (C2) is made by appending the second half of P1 (P1H2) to the first half of P2 (P2H1). Continue reading “Genetic Algorithms: Crossover”

Genetic Algorithm Definitions for TSP

A genetic algorithm is a type of evolutionary algorithm and therefore TSP must be fit to fill all the constraints necessary to execute a genetic algorithm. An organism in the sense of TSP can be defined as a viable path that visits every node in the graph. Each path must start with a node, visit all the nodes present in the graph, and then return to the same node that it started with. An example of a viable path with an input graph of 10 vertices is shown below with each letter representing a node in the input graph:

{A, C, J, D, G, H, E, B, F, I, A}

The population in TSP can be defined as a set of unique paths. Fitness can be defined as the weight or distance of the path. Thus, a lower weight will result in higher fitness and vice versa. A sample population of two organisms is shown below. In front of each organism is its weight or for the cases of this exercise— its fitness:

set{ 143 : {A, C, J, D, G, H, E, B, F, I, A} , 210 : {A , B, J, D, C, E, I, F, H, G, A} }

Genetic Algorithms: Intro

In this exercise, we attempt to utilize genetic algorithms to find an optimal, but not perfect, solution to the traveling salesman problem. A genetic algorithm emulates nature in its optimization process. Nature uses several mechanisms which have led to the emergence of new species and still better adapted to their environments. The laws which react to species evolution have been known by the research of Charles Darwin in the last century: Genetic algorithms are powerful methods of optimization that utilize these rules defined by evolution in their process to find a pseudo-optimal answer. These algorithms were modeled on the evolution of species. The genetic algorithm utilizes the properties of genetics such as selection, crossover, mutation.

Introduction to the Traveling Salesman Problem

The Problem
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a typical example of a very hard combinatorial optimization problem. The problem is to find the shortest tour that passes through each vertex in a given graph exactly once. The TSP problem is classified as an NP-complete problem. There are some intuitive methods to find the approximate solutions, but all of these methods have exponential complexity, they take too much computing time or require too much memory. Mathematically TSP can be expressed as:

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